Within Taoism, then, women were able to seek spiritual fulfillment beyond their family duties. Movement can be found in. - for teaching about women in China and Japan. 1. Woodblock prints were even circulated showing previously forbidden views of women in the imperial family attending public events adorned in western Victorian-era clothes. The Underside of Modern Japan, Pantheon Books, 1982.
4. Tried to raise women s consciousness about their subordinate position. Years after her reign, this derogatory term was applied to China s only female emperor, (Tang dynasty, 625-705 C. E. ).
Buddhism as practiced in Japan and China also granted women some areas of empowerment. Stories of warrior women such as Hua Mulan and various militant Ninja types appear regularly in classical Chinese fiction. East Asia, American Historical Association, Washington, D. C., 1990.
6. Knew or cared little of a weaving girl, / Sitting cold by her window/ Endlessly throwing her shuttle to and fro. During the expansion of trade during the China s Song dynasty women were heavily recruited to work in the cotton and silk mills as spinners and weavers. Those who succeeded were accused of breaking one of nature s laws, of becoming like a hen crowing. Was reinterpreted to refer to a woman who sacrificed herself to her family welfare, an ideal that finds some resonance today. The challenge to unequal gender difference was mounted anew in the 1910s when women in Japan s second wave feminism Indiana University Press, 1999.
8. Yet, through the ages the assumption that men s and women s social places and expected behaviors were quite distinct was based on Confucian hierarchical precepts, and were reinforced by prescriptive advice manuals like Lessons for Girls. Counterbalancing beliefs about women s place is the historic veneration of some powerful, albeit exceptional, women. A core of educated women in both Japan and China joined the call by speaking and writing in public for the first time. Was coined, meaning that in order become good citizens women had to become educated and take part in public affairs. Yet, in the Heian era (950-1050 C. E. ) women still held relative equity in marriage, education, and property rights. Jennifer Anderson and Theresa Munford, Chinese Women Writers, A Collection of Short Stories by Chinese Women Writers in the 1920s 30s. Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, Princeton University Press, 1990. Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on this website
Chinese Buddhism was at its height during the reign of Wu Zetian who promoted the religion and even justified her rule by claiming she was a reincarnation of a previous female Buddhist saint. In the Taiping Rebellion mainly Hakka women with unbound feet fought both as soldiers and generals against the Manchu government. Conservative nationalists and traditionalists in Japan and China at different times reacted by mounting long campaigns against any change in gender roles. Written by the female historian Ban Zhoa (Han dynasty, ca. 45-120 C. E. ), Lessons became one of China s most durable sources of advice about female behavior. Recreating Japanese Women, 1600-1945, University of California Press, 1991.
3. Sharon Sievers, Flowers in Salt: Although footbinding illustrates the perceived need to limit female mobility, the practice did not appear until the Song Dynasty and was not universally followed. As young people were drawn into the struggle against imperialism and traditional Chinese society, women in the 1919 May Fourth Movement (also called the New Cultural Movement) experienced for the first time their own emancipation and wrote about social restraints within the traditional authoritarian family system. Women were denied the right to any political participation, including even taking political science courses, and married women lost some of the legal rights they had held during the Shogunate. Japan s burgeoning export trade in silk and cotton textiles, for example, was the result of the women who by the 1880 s had formed almost two-thirds of Japan s industrial workforce. At the same time, the old ideal of the worker who forsakes even family duties to selflessly contribute to society still holds. Mao Zedong coined the phrase Women Hold Up Half the Sky, Resoonated at different times throughout China s history. The light swirl the active, aggressive, male yang. As yang, she is a force who had the power to disrupt the cosmic yin/yang harmony. The idea was that once gender difference was erased, women would be freed to help spearhead the new society. Each complements the other and is capable of expressing both female and male characteristics. Yukiko Tanaka, To Live and To Write: The drive to encourage women to adopt new modern Ono Kazuko, Chinese Women in a Century of Revolution, 1850-1950, Stanford University Press, 1989.
5. Although concerns about women s position had been expressed earlier, the concept of women s liberation became a major motivating force within the era s nationalist, reform, and revolution movements. Gender difference in this period favored literate women who were free to write in the expressive, popular vernacular language, while men most often wrote in the more formal, inaccessible, classical Chinese. In China s post 1980 modernization efforts, new tensions have emerged as women are urged to return to their traditional roles at home and at work, and to feminize Sun Yat-sen and champion of social justice and women s liberation, and Deng Yingchao, an advocate of women s rights and wife of Zhou Enlai.
The unusual marriage resistance movement among some silk workers in South China was a particularly intriguing outcome of this independence. The notion that women have their place Although in the early feudal period samurai women took a considerable role in household management and defense, by the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), women s rights within the samurai family were practically nonexistent. Hard work, low wages, and attempts to improve their working conditions. In both China and Japan, it was women s work in the textile industries which proved to be the key to industrial success. Gail Bernstein, ed. Memiors, Renditions Press. 1997.
7. Janet Ng and Janice Wickeri, May Fourth Women Writers: Through speeches, magazines, and within newly formed political parties, a small group labeled Japan s first wave feminists In silk production, so vital to China s trade and diplomacy, rested on the initial labor of women who cultivated the mulberry trees, raised the worms, extracted the silk thread from the cocoons, and spun and wove the cloth. Stories and poems, like those from the pen of the infamous female poet Yu Xuanji, also attest to the almost modern openness of the period. In contrast, Confucianism became the most pervasive doctrine to promote the belief in women s natural place. They sought personal fulfillment and fought for substantial changes in women s legal status. The 1762 treatise called Greater Learning for Women illustrates this NeoConfucian ideal of proper female behavior. By the late nineteenth, early twentieth centuries, serious challenges to accepted beliefs about gender were mounted in both Japan and China. Restoring Women to History, Bloomington: Male nationalists initiated the discussion by arguing that an improvement in the status of women was essential to their country s acceptance by other technologically advanced nations. Many of the mill workers in both countries were girls who left poor rural homes to live in dorms. The Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan, Stanford University Press, 1983. 9. Before the 8th century, half of Japan s reigning female sovereigns, such as the popular semi-legendary empress Jingu, were believed to have shaman-like powers. Their physical appearance. Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; As yin, this goddess is compassionate, promising immortality; The most severe reaction against female activism was the Guomindang s counter revolution, called the White Terror (1927 - 1928), when female activists were accused of being instigators of societal chaos. Women of most ethnic minorities, including Hakka and Manchu women, did not practice it, nor did some peasants who had to work in the fields, nor did women in Japan. In Japan, the influence of Shintoism lessened the initial impact of NeoConfucian on women s lives. Susan Mann,, Women s and Gender History in Global Perspective: Set about to oppose the NeoConfucian ideology of good wife, wise mother. During Chiang Kai-shek s relentless hunt for Communists, thousand of women were murdered and raped, including those who had simply bobbed their hair. Not surprisingly, the magazine was often censored and banned. Japan s rebellious writers can be compared to those in China where in the decades between 1915 and 1925 a kind of women s emancipation movement also emerged. The Zhou (Chou) period (1100-770 B. C. E. ) phrase Men plow and women weave, Such was the fate of author Ding Ling, the most prominent female writer of her generation, whose attack on the sexist attitudes of her comrades resulted in suppression. Some joined convents, others gathered with men to discuss philosophy and religion, a few became Taoist adepts. Ancient China s highest goddess, Hsi Huang Mu (Queen Mother of the West), found in the classic tale Journey to the West, also expresses aspects of yin/yang beliefs. Both the independence and the gender limits of women of the pampered elite are wonderfully illustrated in the lively, gossipy writings of, Sei Shogonon, and other Heian female writers. Women s independence was increasing limited during the long centuries of shogunate rule. Confucius himself did not inherently denigrate women, although he placed them at the lower end of the patriarchal family structure. Lovely Tang era paintings and statues depict women on horseback, and as administrators, dancers and musicians. Essay mother.